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Fauna

Close and fragile relationships in nature are evident from the number of animal species. It immediately relates with a species variability of plants in the Central Moravia region. Very generally and simply, it is the same as in plants that is a dependence of species diversity on a rate of broken landscape, a diversity of habitats, a zoogeographic diversity and a human influence not least.

Also animals - different animal species or groups colonize landscape in accordance to an environmental pattern. We can find a similarity with plant kingdom again. There are specialized species living only in a certain kind of forest, meadows, aquatic environment or in boundary between aquatic and terrestrial biotopes. However, we find an important difference from plants on colonization of underground habitats - caves, soil, sediments of river or pond ground. Considering complicated classification of the particular animal groups which are fixed on specific habitats we introduce only important species and a locality of their occurrence.

From a biological point of view an evidence of fluorescent earthworm Eisenia submontana living in forest in the neighbourhood of Hrubá Voda is very interesting. Another important animal species is a gastropod Anisus vorticulus which in Olomouc district occurs only in two localities - both in the Central Moravia (Týn nad Bečvou, the Natural Reservation Plané loučky). It is very important species protected by the Natura 2000 system. As plants characterize the spring aspect of the flooded forest thus an occurrence of two critically endangered crustacean species - the Tadpole Shrimp (Lepidurus apus) and a shell called Siphonophanes grubii is characteristic for the vernal periodic pools (traditionally called "smuha") in the state-protected area Litovelské Pomoraví. Another of testaceous animals - to all people certainly well known the Crayfish (Astacus astacus) - has been extended to a large part of streams in whole region Olomouc in recent years. This expansion is by the help of water quality improvement and protection.

An occurrence of insect, which make a large part of animal biodiversity of whole world, is very important. Aquatic environment serves as home for a plenty of larvae of mayfly Ephemeroptera, dragonfly Odonata, stonefly Plecoptera, and sedgefly Trichoptera. As adults we may watch for example a damselfly Calopteryx splendens or a dragon-fly Aeschna isoscel in the surrounding of water. A find of cave grass-hopper Troglophilus cavicola inside galleries near Hrubá Voda was very important. This grass-hopper was probably brought there from Italy during a mining of slate. You cannot overlook the colonies of ant's nests which may be more than one meter high. An ant colony near Hlubočky (a village) belongs to the largest ones in the Central Moravia. In the xerotherm locations, there you may meet a beetle Dorcadion fulvum or the Dung Beetle (Odontaeus armiger). In warm oak wood you cannot overlook the Stag Beetle (Lucanus cervus).

The most popular insect group is butterflies. You may meet the most conspicuous ones in xerotherm and insolated locations. You may meet a footman moth (Callimorpha quadripunctaria) which is protected by the all-European system Natura 2000, the Great Banded Grayling (Brintesia circe) or the Chalk-hill Blue (Polyomnatus coridon).. Waterlogged vegetation and wet floodplain meadows with a bloodwort are searched by a butterfly Maculinea nausithous or the Large Copper (Lycaena dispar) whose host plants are broadleaf sorrels. Both species are protected by the Natura 2000 system. Another butterfly species of the Central Moravia are for example: the Lesser Purple Emperor (Apatura ilia), or a critically endangered the Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) or the Woodland Brown (Lopinga achine). In warm parts of Prostějov region, there lives the largest European butterfly the Giant Silkworm Moth (Saturnina pyri).

In the Central Moravia, vertebrates represent quite wide spectrum of species - 89% of all known in the Czech Republic. As the important members of fish fauna which among others occure inside the Morava River and the Bečva River we can mention the Clingfish (Gobio kessleri) which is protected by the all-European system Natura 2000. From members of the amphibians and the reptiles let us name for example the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra), the Fire-bellied Toad (Bombina bombina), the European Tree Frog (Hyla arborea), the Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca) or the Common Adder (Vipera berus).

The Central Moravia is an important breeding place and a flight rest place for plenty of bird species. You cannot overlook a silhouette of hunting birds of prey when even in Olomouc city you can observe reintroduced the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). From another important species in Oderské vrchy (hills) it is the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) or the Land Rail (Crex crex) protected by the Natura 2000 system. The Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) nesting in Hranická propast (gorge) may be mentioned too. From bird species connected with both river course of the Morava River and the Bečva River and their sediments or large expanse of water of pools and gravel pits (the Natural Reservation Moravičanské jezero (lake) and Chomutovské jezero, Tovačov) we name well known the Common Kingfisher (Alcedo athis) which inhabits river banks, the Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) or the Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus) nesting in Chomutovské jezero (lake).

In farming landscape there live a number of rodent species. On the other hand, the European Suslik (Spermophilus citellus) becomes an endangered rodent because of the changes in farming. This suslik survives in residual population in Prostějov region.

The Chiroptera - or bats - are another important group of vertebrates. In the Central Moravia, several species occur there. They utilize old hollow trees, church attics, caves, abandoned galleries and those similar places as shelters and wintering places. Typical species may be the Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) or the Bechstein's Bat (Myotis bechsteinii).

From large mammal species, common species such as the roebuck, the deer, the fox, the badger or the wild pig live there. Potentially, there is a possibility that any of wild beasts wander from Oderské vrchy (hills) here. An evidence of the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) was not confirmed.

At the conclusion an occurrence of two water vertebrates goes for a mention. These species are the European Beaver (Castor fiber) and the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). Both species return to the Czech Republic and spread successfully. Both are protected by the state.


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