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The second half of 17th century was markedly affected by the development of baroque culture, architectonical jewels started to arise in Central Moravia of which the Church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary at Svatý Kopeček, completed in 1679, is considered the biggest one.

Great economical help to the region was construction of the emperor's road in 1728 running from Vienna via Brno, Prostějov, Olomouc as far as to Silesia.

The 1740s were a very difficult period in which War for Austrian Succession broke out. At that time Prussian army, under the command of Frederick II., invaded Haná and took completely unprepared Olomouc that was occupied for two years until 1742 when the lost war ended by annexation of the bigger part of Silesia to Prussia. In the following years, bigger towns, especially Olomouc, began to build strong fortifications. When in 1758, during the Seven Year's War, the Prussians drew near Moravia again, Olomouc was not reconquered and after lost battle of Domašov they were forced to leave the region.

During the reign of Maria Theresa compulsory education was introduced also in Haná and many, rather German, schools were built. Newly established business schools as a more prestigious field gained in popularity very quickly. In 1746 the first academy of science in the whole Habsburg Empire, publishing the first scientific magazine in Central Europe, was established in Olomouc. The society existed only several years but it was a proof that the level of knowledge in Moravia did not fall behind. Episcopate of Olomouc was promoted to Archiepiscopate in 1777.

As a consequence of the reforms introduced by Joseph II., many monasteries and churches were closed in the Olomouc region in 1780s and started to be used as barracks and warehouses.