The World War First brought hunger and stagnation to the region. In 1917, a hunger demonstration broke out in Prostějov region, which was later harshly suppressed.
The end of the War, and the following declaration of independent Czechoslovak Republic showed some hope for better times, and the region grew again.
The economic depression in the beginning of the 1930s, and Adolph Hitler's assumption of power led to growing anti-Czech violent actions in some places. After the events, which resulted in the protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a swastika flag was raised above Olomouc, and the oberlandrat with Gestapo seat was established here. Many Haná inhabitants were deported into concentration camps, mainly from regions of Prostějov, Kojetín, Tovačov, and Lipník nad Bečvou. However, soon local rebellious groups, supported from abroad, started to operate in Olomouc region. In the half of April 1945, the Soviet army reached north-Moravian borders. During the war, the Olomouc fortresses were being renovated and built with concrete covers, but even those could not divert the defeat, and Olomouc region was liberated on May 8, 1945. Once the War was terminated, majority of German inhabitants were removed.
In 1946, Olomouc became a university city again.
Also Central Moravia suffered negative impacts of the communist movement, brought in 1948. From aside individual, often very tragic people's fates, focusing only on the landscape, we discover fundamental modifications, caused by blind environment interventions, negligence in care for historical objects of an architectural value, and often thoughtless development in cities and in the country.
In August 1968, inhabitants of Central Moravia protested against the arrival of occupational armies; some lives were lost. Couple of months later, the Soviet army occupied army barracks in Olomouc and a nearby army area of Libavá. One of the typical icons of Olomouc for the next two decades was a military guard in soviet uniforms, walking among ruined historical buildings.
Since the 1990s, Central Moravia has been experiencing changes, which improved significantly the human life quality, despite a partial inhibition of the industry. This reflects in reconstructed historical objects, new communications, and many facilities for education, culture, and sports.
Among the important events of the recent history are also two visits of the Pope John Paul II., which took place in 1990 and 1995.