Informační centrum Olomouc

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Geology, geomorphology, climate

Central Moravia is a region extending to the districts Olomouc, Přerov, and Prostějov. Whole region is mainly lowland or upland; in west part this region it is bounded by highlands. The most important artery is the Morava River which drains a majority of water into the Dunaj River and the Black Sea. Only the northwest of the district Olomouc lies in a basin of the Odra River. Therefore it belongs to the sea drainage area of the Baltic Sea.

This region has a varied geological history and is situated in an interface of the Czech Massif and the External West Carpathian Mountains. In western part, the minerals of the Czech Massif rise in floes of the Drahanská and the Zábřežská vrchovina (upland) there.

Geological development in the region Olomouc went on in particular tectonic floes which are limited by noticeable shifts (so-called the shear zone of the Haná). The central floe was called as the Hornomoravský úval (ravine). The easternmost part of the region was formed by the paleozoic and the cenozoic folding. In the whole area there are evident survivals of marine flooding presented as unfolded sediments of different kinds (clays, sands, gravels) filling the Hornomoravský úval (ravine), Vyškovská brána (gate) and the Moravian Gate.

A marine sedimentation began in the Primary in the north; a number of minerals were metamorphosed as time goes on. In western and central part, there is evident the marine sedimentation of the Primary in limes.

Since the younger Tertiary age, this area was adherent to a geological development of the Western Carpathian. Due to the Alpine Folding conspicuous depressions have arisen. It broke into the region Olomouc from southwest direction. During the Quaternary geological processes was influenced by tectonic movements of main floes and by climatic factors of particular ice ages too. Near margins of the Hornomoravský úval (ravine) large detrial cones developed in estuaries of rivers and streams. A formation of loess which covers a large part of the Hornomoravský úval (ravine) is connected with glacial and interglacial ages. Also relatively thick slope and alluvial sediments and soil horizons belong to the Quaternary formations.

The most apparent geomorphologic structure is a down-thrown block of the Hornomoravský úval (ravine) with slightly downy lowland relief. This georelief markedly contrasts with steep fault slope of the Nízký Jeseník Mountains in the southeast and almost imperceptibly it is separated from the Zábřežská vrchovina (upland) in the northwest. The most apparent fault slope of the Nízký Jeseník Mountains is divided by deep valleys of the left-handed tributary of the Morava River (the Bělkovický potok (stream), the Bystřice River). The valley of the Bystřice River is interesting from a geological point of view because on the steep slopes of this valley a lot of the frost's cabins and stone flows were formed there (the Natural Relic Kamenné proudy u Domašova). Contrary, the Zábřežská vrchovina (upland) is not distinctively delimitated from the Hornomoravský úval (ravine) and also the right-handed inflows of the Morava River are not so sharply penetrate into the landscape. Its components are the Mladečský and the Javořičský kras (karst) which originated in the Devonic calcites. Beside the impressive stalactical decoration there are other karstic events, such as an exsurgence near Řimice (a village), a rock gate Zkamenělý zámek (the Petrified Castle) and downfallen sink hole Zátvořice. A small karstic area with several sink holes developed between Grygov and Krčnaň (villages) too. Another conspicuous depression of floe origin is the Moravian Gate. The slightly downy lowland relief contrasts with steep fault slope of the surrounding floe structures of the Nízký Jeseník Mountains. A fault slope separating these two geomorphologic formations sharply penetrates the right-handed triburaris of the Bečva River. A group of frost's cabins known as the Potštát rock town is very interesting too. Southern west restriction of the Moravian Gate is floe structure Maleník. Its highest parts between Lipník nad Bečvou and Hranice (towns) make a flat ridge where you can find a landmark - a ruin of the Helfštýn castle. The Hranice Karst is another part of Maleník. The most important tourist attractions of this Hranice Karst are the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves with many unusual karst events and for the present the deepest gorge in The Czech Republic - the Hranice gorge. An actual anthropogenic relief relates to a mining of minerals - the remains of adits, the mining hollows and piles. You can find the marks after the mining of gravel-sand and brick raw materials (man-made lakes), building stones, lime stones and building sands. The lime big quarries in the surrounding of Přerov are very problematic because they are situated close neighbourhood of several important protected areas.


According to the macroclimatic regionalization, the region is situated in all climatic regions; it is warm, slightly warm and cold region. Transition between particular subregions is quite continuous. It is caused by changing altitude; therefore main climatic characteristics of the air temperature and the precipitation have average values. The warmest and also the driest area is a part of the Hornomoravský úval (ravine). Conversely, the coldest and the dampest one is the highest situated area of the western side of the Nízký Jeseník Mountains. Climate variability may be described as long, warm and dry summer with very short temporary season with warm or slightly warm spring and autumn, dry or very dry winter with short duration of snow cover on one hand and as climate characterized by very short or short slightly cold and damp summer, long temporary season with slightly cold spring and moderate autumn, long slightly damp winter with long duration of snow cover on the other hand.

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Horní náměstí (podloubí radnice)
779 11 Olomouc